The Pranhita River is the largest stream of the Godavari River which is covering about 34% of its drainage basin conveying the combined waters of the Penganga River, the Wardha River, and the Wainganga River.
The river stream flows along the border of Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra and Komaram Bheem Asifabad district in Telangana. The Pranhita sub-basin is the 7th largest stream in India. Its origin from Thumbidihatti, Kouthala Mandal, Asifabad. The river’s elevation is about 146m or 479 ft, and its length is 113 kilometers.
The Pranhita River starts at the junction of 2 extensive rivers, the Wardha and the Wainganga. This junction lies on the border between the states of Maharashtra and Telangana near Kouthala which is near Sirpur Kagajnagar.
By distinction of its extensive network of streams, the river drains all of the Vidharba regions and in the southern slopes of the Satpura Ranges. The river stream flows with the border of Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra and Adilabad district in Telangana.
However, the direction of river flow is southward unlike most rivers of the Deccan Plateau. Along its course, the river is bounded by thick forests and ports of a rich biodiversity of flora and fauna. After completing its short journey, the river merged itself into the Godavari River at 170 feet in Kaleswaram.
The project was originally developed as the Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Pranhita-Chevella Sujala Sravanthi project. According to the reports of the Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal (GWDT) of October 1975, the state Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh had agreed to share the river’s waters for some projects and one of which was the Pranahita-Chevella project.
But, after that project was divided into two parts Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Pranhita Project and Kaleshwaram Project. Additionally, there are two reasons behind the division of the project. The very first reason is said that the availability of Godavari water is better at Medigadda. Secondly, the Maharashtra government raised objections to Tummidihatti as it heard that a large path of its area would get submerged.
The Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Pranhita project, constructing a barrage across river Pranhita near the confluence of Wainganga and Wardha rivers at Tummidihatti, Koutala, Adilabad District for irrigating an area of 2,00,000 acres in the East Adilabad district against the originally proposed area was 56,500 acres in the district.
And the Kaleshwaram project has three obstructions at Medigadda near Kaleshwaram, Annaram, and Sundilla between Medigadda and Sripada Yellampally Project and reservoirs at another 18 places.
The Kaleshwaram project requires 4,500 MW of power for lifting water in different stages including, 113 meters to the Yellampally reservoir. From Yellampally, it would be lifted to Mid Manair and from there to Ananthagiri, Imamabad, and Mallannasagar reservoirs. From Mallannasagar, the water would flow through the gravity to Upper Manair and reservoirs in Nizamabad and Adilabad districts.
Furthermore, after the planning, the proposed capacity of reservoirs is increased from 11.43 TMC to 147.71 TMC by extending the capacities of existing reservoirs and offering new reservoirs to match the demand and supply.